Causal insights from failure. What pharmacovigilance can teach us about causality

It is the business of pharmacovigilance to evidence causal failure: when the effects of the drugs are unexpected. Simply knowing that a medicine can affect or interact with a particular biological mechanism is itself a valuable piece of causal information, argue Elena Rocca, Rani Lill Anjum and Stephen Mumford in a recent publication. Read more about this and the CauseHealth collaboration with Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) in Uppsala Reports.